General Spraying Terms & Definitions
Some of these words have several meanings. Those give here are the ones that relate to pest control and spraying equipment.
Abrasion: the process of wearing away by rubbing.
Abscission: the separation of fruit, leaves, or stems from a plant.
Absorption: the process by which a chemical is taken into plants, animals or minerals. Compare with adsorption.
Activator: a chemical added to a pesticide to increase its activity.
Adherence: sticking to a surface.
Adjuvant: inert ingredient added to a pesticide formulation to make it work better.
Adsorption: the process by which chemicals are held on the surface of a mineral or soil particle. Compare with absorption.
Adulterated: any pesticide whose strength or purity falls below the quality stated on its label. Also, a food, feed or product that contains illegal pesticide residues.
Aerobic: living in air. The opposite of anaerobic.
Aerosol: an extremely fine mist or fog consisting of solid or liquid particles suspended in air. Also, certain formulations used to produce a fine mist.
Agitation: the process of stirring or mixing in a sprayer.
Alkalolds: chemicals present in some plants. Some are used as pesticides.
Ampere, Amp: a measure of electric current; the flow of electrons. One amp is 1 coulomb (6.3 x 101 electrons) passing in one second. One amp is produced by an electric force of 1 volt acting across a resistance of 1 ohm.
Antagonism: the loss of activity of a chemical when exposed to another chemical.
Antibiotic: a substance which is used to control pest microorganisms.
Antidote: a practical treatment for poisoning, including first aid.
Aqueous: a term used to indicate the presence of water in a solution.
Arsenicals: pesticides containing arsenic.
Aseptic: free of disease-causing organisms.
Biodegradable: the process in which a substance decomposes to its natural elements through normal acts of nature.
Bipyridyliums: a group of synthetic organic pesticides which includes the herbicide paraquat.
Boom: a mechanical structure used to extend and carry nozzles from a sprayer carrier.
- Dry Boom: carry the liquid in synthetic rubber or plastic and use nylon, brass or stainless steel for the nozzle adapters.
- Wet Boom: liquid is carried through the structure. Wet booms are stainalized steel or 304 stainless steel.
Botanical Pesticide: a pesticide made from plants. Also called plant derived pesticides.
British Thermal Unit (BTU): amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit.
Broadleaf Weeds: plants with broad, rounded or flattened leaves.
Brush Control: control of woody plants.
C.D.A.: “Controlled Droplet Applicator”. Through the use of high speed spinning discs uniform sized droplets are formed.
Carbamate: a synthetic organic pesticide containing carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur.
Carcinogenic: can cause cancer.
Carrier: the inert liquid or solid material added to an active ingredient to prepare a pesticide formulation.
Causal Organism: the organism (pathogen) that produces a specific disease.
Chemosterilant: a chemical that can prevent reproduction.
Chlorinated Hydrocarbon: a synthetic organic pesticide that contains chlorine, carbon and hydrogen. Same as organochlorine.
Chlorosis: the yellowing of a plant’s green tissue.
Cholinesterase: a chemical catalyst (enzyme) found in animals that helps regulate the activity of nerve impulses.
Closed Center System: in a closed center system the tractor’s hydraulic pump (usually a piston type) has variable output that can be adjusted to compensate for engine speed or accessory demand.
Compatible: when two or more chemicals can be mixed without affecting each other’s properties, they are said to be compatible.
Compatible Agent: compounds or formulations which can be mixed and applied together without undesirably altering their separate effects.
Concentration: the amount of active ingredient in a given volume or weight of formulation.
Contaminate: to make impure or to pollute.
Corrosion: the process of wearing away by chemical means.
Conversion Efficiency (cell): The ratio of the electric energy produced by a solar cell (under full sun conditions) to the energy from sunlight incident upon the cell.
Crucifers: plants belonging to the mustard family, such as mustard, cabbage, turnip and radish.
Cucurbits: plants belonging to the gourd family, such as pumpkin, cucumber and squash.
Deciduous Plants: perennial plants that lose their leaves during the winter.
Deep Discharge: discharging a battery to 20% or less of its full charge.
Deflocculating Agent: a material added to a suspension to prevent settling.
Degradation: the process by which a chemical is reduced to a less complex form.
Dermal: of the skin, through or by the skin.
Dermal Toxicity: ability of a chemical to cause injury when absorbed through the skin.
Diluent: any liquid or solid material used to dilute or carry an active ingredient.
Dilute: to make thinner by adding water, another liquid, or a solid.
Dispersing Agent: a material that reduces the attraction between particles.
Dormant: state in which growth of seeds or other plant organs stops temporarily.
Dose, Dosage: quantity of a pesticide applied.
Electric Current: a flow of electrons, electricity.
Emulsifier: a chemical which aids in suspending one liquid in another.
Emulsion: a mixture in which one liquid is suspended as tiny drops in another liquid, such as oil in water.
Flooded Suction: liquid source is higher than pump and liquid flows to pump by gravity. Preferable for centrifugal pump installations.
Flow: the measure of the liquid volume capacity of a pump. Given in gallons per hour (gph) or gallons per minute (gpm), as well as liters per minute (lpm) and milliliters per minute (ml/min).
Fungistat: a chemical that keeps fungi from growing.
Gland: holds the packing in a stuffing box to maintain the desired compression for a proper seal.
GPA: gallons per acre.
GPM: gallons per minute.
Growth Stages of Cereal Crops:
- Tillering – when additional shoots are developing from the flower buds.
- Jointing – when stem internodes begin elongating rapids.
- Booting – when upper leaf sheath swells due to the growth of developing spike or panicle.
- Heading – when seed head is emerging from the upper leaf sheath.
Hard (water): water containing soluble salts of calcium and magnesium and sometimes iron.
Head: another measure of pressure, expressed in feet. Indicates the height of a column of water being lifted by the pump, neglecting friction losses in piping.
Herbaceous Plant: a plant that does not develop woody tissue.
Herbicide: a chemical used for killing plants or interrupting their normal growth.
Hose: a flexible pipe or tube used to convey liquids. Spray hose is low pressure (0-75), medium pressure (0-450), and high pressure (800-1000). Option of no braid, 1 braid, multiple braid or wire braid. (No braid is normally used for sight gauge hose).
High Pressure Hose: used on piston pump delivery and spray gun use.
- Horizontal Braided Hose (Mandrel built): construction provides larger hose diameters and greater rated working pressures. Gives minimum contraction and expansion under pressure, excellent flexibility, better control of I.D. Applications – butane/propane, steam and hydraulic applications where high rated pressures are required.
- Horizontal Braided (Wire reinforced): similar to horizontal braided hose with the addition of a reinforcing wire spiralled between braids. Provides larger hose diameters and greater rated working pressures. Suitable for applications involving suction and in gravity and pneumatic systems. Applications – chemical transfer and petroleum.
Hydraulic Hose: oil resistant multiple braid or wire braid hose on hydraulic systems and is rated from 1000 lbs. up, depending upon type and size.
- Medium Pressure Hose: by type is used for by-pass, boom and spray gun hose where roller pumps are used.
- Vertical Braided Hose: provides long continuous lengths of hose with excellent flexibility and wrinkle-free covers. Applications – fuel oil, garden, welding and spray applications where long lengths are needed.
- Wire Reinforced Hose: smooth bore construction provides collapse resistant hose. Flexible for bending in small radius without collapsing. Applications – materials handling or oil suction and discharge applications which require special ends, maximum suction or special flexing requirements, or all three.
Host: the living plant or animal a pest depends on for survival.
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: a measure of acidity or alkalinity, expressed in terms of the pH of the solution. For example, a pH of 7 is neutral, from 1 to 7 is acid and from 7 to 14 is alkaline.
Immune: not susceptible to a disease or poison.
Impermeable: cannot be penetrated. Semipermeable means that some substances can pass through and others cannot.
Insecticide: a chemical used for killing insects or interrupting their normal growth.
Lactation: the production of milk by an animal, or the period during which an animal is producing milk.
Larva: the early form of an insect from the time that it leaves the egg until it becomes a pupa.
LC50: the concentration of an active ingredient in air which is expected to cause death in 50% of the test animals so treated. A means of expressing the toxicity of a compound present in air as dust, mist, gas or vapor. It is generally expressed as micrograms per liter as a dust or mist but in the case of a gas or vapor as parts per million (ppm).
LD50: the dose of an active ingredient taken by mouth or absorbed by the skin which is expected to cause death in 50 percent of the test animals so treated. If a chemical has an LD50 or 10 milligrams per kilogram it is more toxic than one having an LD50 of 100 milligrams per kilogram.
Leaching: movement of a substance downward or out of the soil as the result of water movement.
Lift (suction lift): liquid source is lower than the pump. Pumping action creates a partial vacuum and atmospheric pressure forces liquid up to pump. Theoretical limit of suction lift is 34 feet, practical limit is 25 feet or less, depending on pump type and elevation above sea level.
Mammals: warm-blooded animals that nourish their young with milk. Their skin is more or less covered with hair.
Metamorphosis: a change in shape, form and size in insects.
Miscible Liquids: two or more liquids that can be mixed and will remain mixed under normal conditions.
Micron: a unit of measurement. There are 25,400 microns per inch.
MPH: miles per hour.
Mutagenic: can produce genetic change.
Necrosis: localized death of living tissue such as the death of a certain area of a leaf.
Necrotic: showing varying degrees of dead areas or spots.
Nitrophenols: synthetic organic pesticides containing carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen.
Noxious Weed: a plant defined as being especially undesirable or troublesome.
Nymph: the stage of development in certain insects after hatching. They look like the adult but lack fully developed winqs.
Open Center System: in this tractor hydraulic system the tractor’s hydraulic pump (usually a gear type) runs continually and provides a constant flow of oil even when the system control lever is in neutral and no oil is being used to operate equipment. “Open” indicates continuous flow.
Open Circuit Voltage: the voltage across a photovoltaic cell in sunlight when no current is flowing; the maximum possible voltage.
Oral: of the mouth; through or by the mouth.
Oral Toxicity: ability of a pesticide to cause injury when taken by mouth.
Organic Compounds: chemicals that contain carbon.
Organochlorine: same as chlorinated hydrocarbon.
Organophosphate: a synthetic organic pesticide containing carbon, hydrogen, and phosphorus; parathion and malathion are two examples.
Ovicide: a chemical that destroys eggs.
Parasite: a plant or animal that lives on or in another plant or animal from which it gets food.
Pathogen: any disease-producing organism.
Penetratlon: the act of entering or ability to enter.
Pest: living things that compete with man for food and fiber, or attack man directly.
Pesticide: any substance or mixture of substances intended for controlling insects, rodents, fungi, undesirable plants or animal life considered pests.
Photovoltaic Array: an interconnected system of photovoltaic modules that functions as a single electricity-producing unit. The modules are assembled as a discrete structure, with common support or mounting.
Photovoltaic Cell: a device that converts light directly into electricity. A solar photovoltaic cell, or solar cell, is designed for use in sunlight. All photovoltaic cells produce direct current (DC).
Phytotoxic: harmful to plants.
Pollutant: an agent or chemical that makes something impure or dirty.
PPB: parts per billion. A way to express the concentration of chemicals in foods, plants and animals. One part per billion equals 1 pound in 500 000 tons.
PPM: parts per million. A way to express the concentration of chemicals in foods, plants and animals. One part per million equals 1 pound in 500 tons.
Pressure: the force exerted on the walls of a container (tank, pipe, etc.) by the liquid. Measured in pounds per square inch (psi).
Prime: a charge of liquid required to begin pumping action of centrifugal pumps when liquid source is lower than pump. May be held in pump by a foot valve on the intake line or a valve chamber within the pump.
Propellant: liquid in self-pressurized pesticide products that forces the active ingredient from the container.
PSI: pounds per square inch.
PSIG: pounds per square inch according to a gauge.
Pubescent: having hairy leaves or stems.
Pump: any of various machines that force a liquid or gas into, or draw it out of something, as by suction or pressure.
- Centrifugal Pump: high volume low pressure and depending on rotor speed produce from 30 to 90 psi. Normally used where abrasives may be present and volume for agitation is required with the full dispensing system in operation. Ideal for fertilizer solutions or wettable powders and may be used in most agricultural applications where medium pressures are adequate. Normal rotor speeds at rating are 3600 to 4200 rpm. The gallonage varies almost directly with the pressure and reduces to 0 psi at the highest pressure developed at shut-off. A dual stage centrifugal pump is available for pressures to 180 psi. Does not use a relief valve but requires a flow valve in the delivery line to regulate the pressure by restriction to the dispensing unit. Will by-pass within its rotor body. Running dry is not recommended, it is possible for short intervals. Without special accessories it is not self priming and always should be mounted below or as near to the level of the base of the liquid source as possible.
- Diaphragm Pump: the unique design of these pumps keeps all moving parts sealed in an oil bath and completely away from corrosive and abrasive sprays. In addition to protecting moving parts, the oil bath balances pressure on the diaphragms ensuring their long life All wetted pump parts are protected with a non-corrosive epoxy coating or special alloy. Self priming, the diaphragm pumps require less horsepower than other pump types with similar flow and pressure ratings. Like piston pumps, diaphragm pumps are all positive displacement pumps, output remains constant with pump speed.
- Gear Pump: nearly positive pump in an unworn condition and usually operates by a shaft attached to a gear inside of the pump body which drives a lower gear. The solution is carried by the gear teeth around the outside of the unmeshed section of the gears. Abrasives are not recommended and dry running is not advisable. Relief valve must be used 0-3600 psi is the normal rpm range and pressures to 150 lbs. are normal.
- Piston Pump: positive pump and require relief and unloader valves Surge chambers should be used if they are not built into the pump Pressure range, depending upon design, varies from 400 to 1000 psi. Gallonage varies from 2 to 30 gallons per minute. RPM will be 1800 on small units designed for motor use. Standard rpm on most piston pumps is 500 to 800 rpm. Gallonage delivered is in direct proportion to the cubic displacement of the pistons and the rpm. Should not be operated above their design pressure and should not be run dry.
- Roller Pump: semi-positive and gallonage varies with pressure requirements. Can normally be used in the application of solutions applied at 30 to 200 lbs. or pressure at low to medium gallonages. Pump draws from the tank and require a relief valve ahead of the dispensing shut-off or control valve. Not designed for abrasives and cannot be run dry without damage. Normally operate at 500 to 1200 rpm. Some small models are rated to 1800 rpm. Will self-prime. May be operated a short distance above the liquid source.
- Turbine Pump: similar to centrifugal pump except it has closer tolerances, additional fins and usually is multi-staged. Relief valve or by pass line is required.
Pumping System: the suction line, line strainer, pump, pressure line, directional control valves, pressure control valve and by-pass line of a sprayer.
Pupa: the stage between the larva and adult in the development of some insects.
PV: abbreviation for photovoltaic(s).
Respiratory Tract: having to do with or used for breathing; the lungs and other parts of the breathing system.
Rhizome: a rootlike underground stem.
Rope Applicator: a “wick applicator” which uses saturated nylon ropes to carry the herbicide; usually a contact herbicide.
Rotary Nozzle: a nozzle that has a spinning orifice or set of orifices that use centrifugal force to propel the spray fluid.
RPM: revolutions per minute.
Safener: a chemical added to a pesticide to keep it from injuring plants.
Seal: a device mounted in the pump housing and/or on the pump shaft, to prevent leakage of liquid from the pump. There are two types: Mechanical – has a rotating part and stationary part with highly polished touching surfaces. Has excellent sealing capability and life, but can be damaged by dirt or grit in the liquid. Lip – a flexible ring (usually rubber or similar material) with the inner edge held closely against the rotating shaft by a spring.
Sealless (Magnetic Drive): no seal is used; power is transmitted from motor to pump impeller by magnetic force, through a wall that completely separates motor from impeller.
Seed Protectant: a chemical applied to seed before planting to protect seeds and new seedlings from disease and insects.
Short Circuit Current: the current flowing freely from a photovoltaic cell through an external circuit which as no load or resistance; the maximum current possible.
Soil Sterilant: a chemical that prevents the growth of all plants and animals in the soil. Soil sterilization may be temporary or permanent, depending on the chemical.
Soluble: will dissolve in a liquid.
Solution: mixture of one or more substances in another in which all ingredients are completely dissolved.
Solvent: a liquid which will dissolve a substance to form a solution.
Specific Gravity: the ratio of the weight of a given volume of liquid to the same volume of pure water. Unless stated otherwise, power requirements of all pumps listed herein are based on pumping water. Pumping heavier liquids (specific gravity greater than 1.0) will require more drive horsepower.
Sprayer: a machine for controlled delivery of solutions and operates on the basic principal of hydraulics. Spray unit comprises a carrier, a tank, a dispensing system (nozzle, orifice), boom, or spray gun, a pumping system (roller, centrifugal, turbine, gear or piston) and a power delivery system (engine or motor drive, PTO drive or ground metering). Sprayer may be mounted to a trailer (3-point side mount, front-mount, or suspended from the frame). May be power pulled (2 or 4 wheel trailer), mounted in a truck box or attached to the truck chassis. Other units may be stationary or pulled or pushed by hand.
- Mist Blower Sprayer: a sprayer which pumps liquid in front of a current of air usually produced by spinning turbines or squirrel cages that propel the spray in a “mist” toward the target.
Spray Gun: a handheld nozzle.
Spreader: a chemical which increases the area that a given volume of li quid will cover on a solid or on another liquid.
Static Discharge Head: vertical distance (in feet) from pump to point of discharge.
Sticker: a material added to a pesticide to increase its adherence.
Stolon: an above-ground stem that produces roots.
Strainer: a device for straining, sifting or filtering. Strainers are incorporated into a sprayer system to remove foreign matter from the spray liquid prior to entry into the nozzle system of the boom where centrifugal pump units are used and prior to liquid entry into the pumping unit on roller, piston and gear units. Broyhill’s 1″ line strainer is used on all tank type models of the agricultural, turf or industrial machines. This strainer, with stainless steel screening of 20, 40, 80 or 200 mesh, has 27 sq. inches of screen and is adequate for all standard pump units including the centrifugal. The body of the strainer is constructed of white nylon.
Stuffing Box: a portion of the casing through which the shaft extends and in which packing and a gland or a mechanical seal is placed to prevent leakage.
Sump: a well or pit in which liquids collect below floor level; sometimes refers to an oil reservoir.
Surfactant: a chemical which increases the emulsifying, dispersing, spreading and wetting properties of a pesticide product.
Susceptible: capable of being diseased or poisoned, not immune.
Susceptible Species: a plant or animal that is poisoned by moderate amounts of pesticide.
Suspension: finely divided solid particles mixed in a liquid.
Synergism: the joint action of two or more pesticides that is greater than the sum of their activity when used alone.
Tank: container for liquid or gas. Made from steel, stainless steel (409 and 304), polyethylene and fiberglass. Steel is subject to corrosion (basically during the non use period with average chemicals), while polyethylene is very resistant. Steel is exceedingly strong and resistant to temperatures and damage, whereas polyethylene strength is adequate if properly supported for intended use but is subject to rupture if it strikes a foreign object or is subject to misuse. Epoxy lined steel retains the characteristics of steel but is protected from corrosion for an extended period. Epoxy will not withstand the hydrocarbons i.e. Lasso Ramrod or volatile chemicals under pressure. Fiberglas tanks have the resistance to the chemical range plus additional strength for their own support not found in the polyethylene. The ultimate tank is stainless steel where both strength and non-corrosiveness are combined.
Target Pest: the pest at which a particular pesticide or other control method is directed.
Tolerance: (1) the ability of a living thing to withstand adverse conditions, such as pest attacks, weather extremes, or pesticides. (2) the amount of pesticide that may safely remain in or on raw farm products at time of sale.
Total Head: the sum of discharge head, suction lift, and friction losses.
Toxicant: a poisonous chemical.
Trade Name: same as brand name.
- Tubing – Polyethylene: excellent electrical insulator. Low water-vapor permeability, high O and CO permeability. Good chemical resistance. Transulcent white. Rigid but bends even at low temperatures. Sterilizable by ethylene oxide. Temperature range: -70 to + 176 F (-60 C to + 80 C).
- Tubing – Polypropylene: translucent and more rigid than polyethylene tubing. High stress, and puncture resistance. Good chemical resistance; strong oxidizing agents should be avoided. Autoclavable. Temperature range: + 32 F to 275 F (0 C to 135 C).
- Tubing – Polyurethane: clear, flexible, nontoxic; ideal for high-purity work. Excellent chemical resistance. Sterilizable by ethylene oxide. Temperature range: -94 F to + 116 F (-70 C to +82 C). Nalgene.
- ULV: “Ultra Low Volume”.
Vapor Pressure: the property which causes a chemical to evaporate. The lower the vapor pressure, the more easily it will evaporate.
Valve: a device regulating the flow of liquid in a channel. Designated as 8-way control, ball, gate, needle or globe and electronic control systems. Sized to accommodate the design flow and are made from materials tested for the general specified usage. While standard in appearance, have special components, seals or packing for chemical service.
- 8-Way Control Valve: a composite assembly or casting devised to allow the mounting of the gauge and a relief valve in a body containing the valve mechanism. This type unit is designed for 200 psi maximum pressure and is the standard control used in a Broyhill pumping system.
- Ball Valve: a straight through 90 lever shut-off valve designed for 400 to 1000 psi and is full flow. The valve is available in brass, nylon or stainless. Used for high pressures or where quick action is required.
- Check Valve: allows liquid to flow in one direction only. Generally used in discharge line to prevent reverse flow.
- DirectoValve: a lever controlled flow control valve that directs flow to a particular boom section or other preconceived destination.
- Electronic Valve: an electrically controlled valve (usually D.C. powered) for use on mobile equipment. Can be either an on-off valve or pressure control valve.
- Foot Valve: a type of check valve with a built-in strainer. Used at point of liquid intake to retain liquid in system, preventing loss of prime when liquid source is lower than pump.
- Gate Valve: a straight through full flow valve with a wheel handle for closing. Constructed of brass and plastic. Used for suction shut-off before the strainer so that it may be cleaned without loss of fluid from the tank.
- Globe Valve: not full flow and are used as a regulator valve on the jet agitation system. Made of brass or celcon plastic.
- Needle Valve: not full flow and are used for hydraulic metering on hydraulic pump drives. Industrial type sprayers have a needle valve to protect the pressure gauge. Constructed of brass or steel.
- Relief Valve: usually used at the discharge of a positive displacement pump. An adjustable valve, spring loaded valve opens or “relieves”, when a preset pressure is reached. Used to prevent excessive pressure and pump or motor damage if discharge line is closed off.
- Unloader Valve: similar to relief valve, but not adjustable. A deluxe relief valve (60 to 600 psi range) contains a separate mechanism which gives the relief valve free by-pass when the pressure built up is greater than the pressure setting. It is normally used with piston pumps, so that when the boom or spray gun is not in operation the pump may run without load on the power source. When the boom is turned on the system pressure automatically returns to the pre-determined operating pressure setting.
Vector: a carrier, such as an insect, that transmits a pathogen.
Viscosity: the “thickness” of a liquid, or its ability to flow. Temperature must be stated when specifying viscosity, since most liquids flow more easily as they get warmer. The more viscous the liquid, the slower the pump speed required.
Volatile: evaporates at ordinary temperatures when exposed to air.
Volt, Voltage: a measure of the force or “push” given the electrons in a electric circuit; a measure of electric potential. One volt produces one amp of current when acting against a resistance of one ohm.
Watt, Wattage: a measure of electric power, or amount of work done in unit of time. One amp of current flowing at a potential of one volt produces one watt of power.
Watt Hour (Wh, Whr): a quantity of electrical energy (electricity). One watt hour is consumed when one watt of power is used for a period of one hour.
Wetting Agent: a chemical which causes a liquid to contact surfaces more thoroughly.
Wick Applicator: a pesticide (usually herbicide) applicator that uses a saturated material (rope, carpet, foam material) to wipe the chemical onto the target. The saturated material stays wet through capillary action or wicking.